"The Cunning Hand, The Cultured Mind": Models for Integrating Vocational and Academic Education

W. N. Grubb, G. Davis, J. Lum, J. Plihal, C. Morgaine

Many approaches to integrating vocational and academic education exist. There is no single model that could apply to all schools. This document identifies and examines eight integration models, each with several variations. These models include incorporating more academic content in vocational courses; combining vocational and academic teachers to incorporate academic content into vocational programs; making academic courses more vocationally relevant; curricular alignment, modifying both vocational and academic education; the senior project as a form of integration; the academy model; occupational high schools and magnet schools; and occupational clusters, career paths, and majors.

MDS-141 / July 1991

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